Diesel Locomotive Classes –
Broad Gauge

Note: Information on meter gauge and narrow gauge diesels can be found here.

Broad Gauge Diesel Locomotives

Note: Class names for mainline diesels are according to the new classification scheme, with references to the class names in the old system for those classes that were renamed, or for older classes that are out of use. See the general loco page for an explanation of the new and old schemes.

WDM–2WDM-2 (Class name unchanged after reclassification.) 2600 hp Alco models (RSD29 / DL560C). Co-Co, 16-cylinder 4-stroke turbo-supercharged engine. Introduced in 1962. The first units were imported fully built from Alco. After DLW was set up, 12 of these were produced from kits imported from Alco (order no. D3389). After 1964, DLW produced this loco in vast numbers in lots of different configurations. This loco model was IR's workhorse for the second half of the 20th century, and perhaps the one loco that has an iconic association with IR for many people. These locos are found all over India hauling goods and passenger trains — the standard workhorse of IR. Many crack trains of IR used to be double-headed by WDM-2 locos; this has decreased now owing to the electrification of most important sections and the use of more powerful locos. A single WDM-2 can generally haul around 9 passenger coaches; twin WDM-2's were therefore used for 18-coach trains.

WDM-2 JumboJumbos – A few locos of the WDM-2 class produced in 1978-79 have a full-width short hood; these are unofficially termed 'Jumbos' by the crew. These range from serial numbers around 17796 or so to about 17895 or so (17899 and above are known to be 'normal' WDM-2s). These were apparently produced with the idea of improving the visibility for the drivers, but it was learned later that it did not make much of a difference under the typical operating conditions of these locos. Some of these were later modified to have narrower short hoods to look more like the other WDM-2's. Two locos, #17881 and #17882, were trial locos produced by DLW when they were considering shutting down Jumbo production; these look like ordinary WDM-2 locos, even though there are other Jumbos with higher road numbers than them. Some Jumbos have undergone further modifications: Loco #17854 was a Jumbo based at Jhansi in 1981; now [6/04] it has been rebuilt as a WDM-3A locomotive (based at Pune) by DCW, Patiala.

WDM-2 JumboThe classification WDM-2A is applied to those that were re-fitted with air brakes (most of these therefore have dual braking capability), while WDM-2B is applied to more recent locos built with air brakes as the original equipment (these very rarely have vacuum braking capability in addition, especially if they have been rebuilt by Golden Rock). (However, in the past, before the widespread use of air-brakes, a few modified versions with a low short hood at one end like the WDS-6 were also classified WDM-2A.) A few WDM-2 locos of the Erode shed have been modified and sport a full-forward cab at one end, with the dynamic brake grid, blower, etc. moved between the cab and the traction alternator.

The original Alco designs had a 10-day, 3000km maintenance schedule, which was later extended by some modifications to a 14-day schedule. Now [1/02], the schedule is being extended to 30 days by increasing the capacities for various fluids (lubrication oil, etc.), and improving some bearings (mainly, using roller bearings for the suspension). The original WDM-2 bearings were very susceptible to failure. However, given the age of this model, unsurprisingly even locos that have been modified for a 14-day schedule do often require more frequent maintenance or minor repair so they end up being put on a 7-day schedule anyway.

WDM-2 locos are excepted from the new mainline diesel classification scheme and will remain classified as WDM-2 and not 'WDM-2F' as they might be in the new scheme based on their horsepower.

The first one supplied by Alco was #18040. This one is no longer in use and is now preserved at the National Railway Museum at New Delhi. The second one from Alco, #18041, is currently [7/05] homed at Kalyan shed and is often seen hauling the Diva - Vasai DMU service. The first WDM-2 built by DLW, #18233, is now at Andal shed (not much in use). The last WDM-2's were in the 16000 series. The very last one is #16887.

The WDM-2 locos have a max. speed of 120km/h. There are generally speaking no restrictions for running with the long hood leading, although it's been reported that in some cases the practice was to limit it to 100km/h. The gear ratio is 65:18.

Some WDM-2 units are being converted [2/02] to have AC-DC transmission (alternator driving DC traction motors) by DCW, Patiala. Golden Rock workshops have also been renovating some WDM-2 locos with new features such as twin-beam headlamps.

Only one WDM-2 loco (#16859, Ernakulam shed) is known to have had cab air-conditioning fitted. This was the first loco to have air-conditioning in India; this was done by the ERS shed in 1997 right after receiving the loco from DLW, but it was disabled later as the auxiliary alternator proved too weak to run the air-conditioner well.

A few WDM-2 locos downgraded for shunting duties have been seen marked with a WDM-2S class name; e.g., some at Itwari shed [2003] and some at Kurla. A few have also been spotted bearing the class name WDS-2, e.g., those at the Kalyan shed where they are used for shunting. These appear to be quirks of the local shed staff and not officially recognized classifications.

DCW Patiala has rebuilt some WDM-2 units to class WDM-3A/WDM-2C specifications. WDM-3A These are a little different from the normal WDM-2C from DLW. They look very similar to WDM-2's, except for a bulge on one of the doors of the hood; this is due to the presence of a centrifugal fuel filter which moved there because the model required larger aftercoolers. There are some other slight differences in appearance. These units have a GE turbocharger and a different expressor with integral air drying facility. They have a Woodwards governor which leads to even running and idling, and (to the great disappintment of Alco smoke fans) reduces the amount of black smoke during intense acceleration. These also have roller bearings for the suspension, improving on the longstanding problem of bearing failures on the regular WDM-2 model.

Following the new mainline diesel classification scheme, new WDM-2C's converted or overhauled by DCW, Patiala, are being labelled WDM-3A (new).

Brief Notes

  • Builders: Alco, DLW
  • Engine: Alco 251-B, 16 cylinder, 2600hp (2430hp site rating) with Alco 710/720/?? turbocharger. 1000rpm max, 400rpm idle; 228mm x 266mm bore/stroke; compression ratio 12.5:1. Direct fuel injection, centrifugal pump cooling system (2457l/min @ 1000rpm), fan driven by eddy current clutch (86hp @ engine rpm 1000).
  • Governor: GE 17MG8 / Woodwards 8574-650.
  • Transmission: Electric, with BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator (1000rpm, 770V, 4520A).
  • Traction motors: GE752 (original Alco models) (405hp), BHEL 4906 BZ (AZ?) (435hp) and (newer) 4907 AZ (with roller bearings)
  • Axle Load: 18.8 tonnes, total weight 112.8t.
  • Bogies: Alco design asymmetric cast frame trimount (Co-Co) bogies (shared with WDS-6, WDM-7, WAM-4, WCAM-1, WCG-2).
  • Starting TE: 30.4t, at adhesion 27%.
  • Length over buffer beams: 15862mm.
  • Distance between bogies: 10516mm.

For details, refer to the loco specifications page.

Comparative Specifications

WDM-3A / WDM–2CWDM-3A, baldie variant (Old class name WDM-2C, new class name WDM-3A.) These 3100hp locos are more powerful versions of the WDM-2. The first one was delivered on August 22, 1994. A single WDM-2C could haul a 21-coach passenger train, something that required two of the older WDM-2's. The WDM-2C / WDM-3A also has a rated top speed of 120km/h, and has the same power-pack as the WDG-2 and WDP-2 locos. Early units were air-braked but lately many have been provided dual-braking capability. Dynamic brakes are also provided. The loco has a single cab. Gear ratio 65:18 as with the WDM-2. All recent units have a square profile, but a few early versions have a rounded appearance. Starting in [11/02], even higher powered units (3300hp) have been turned out by DLW, Varanasi, and DCW (DMW), Patiala -- all recent WDM-3A are of 3300hp power rating.

DLW has also experimented with improvements to the Alco 251 powerpack to extract 3900hp out of it, and this is being [4/02] tested in a few locomotives.The new class name for these is WDM-3A.

WDM-2CA is a variant of the WDM-2C (numbers beyond #14080). Dual brakes? (not confirmed) These units all had right-hand seating for the driver. Later these were all reclassified WDM-3A along with the WDM-2C locos, but a few remain at Erode shed with the old class name on them [7/05].

Brief Notes

  • Builders: DLW
  • Engine: Upgraded (by DLW) Alco 251-C (16 cylinder), 3100hp (2900hp site rating) early models, 3300hp from 2003, 1050rpm max / 400rpm idle; direct fuel injection. Cooling and fans as with WDM-2. ABB VTC304-15 or Napier NA 295 IR turbocharger.
  • Governor: GE 17MG8 / Woodwards 8574-650.
  • Transmission: Electric with BHEL TA 10102 CW alternator, 1050rpm, 1130V, 4400A. (Earlier used BHEL TG 10931 AZ alternator.)
  • Axle Load: 18.8 tonnes. Wheelset: Co-Co trimount bogie.
  • Starting TE: 30.4t, at adhesion 27%.
  • Length over buffer beams: 15862m
  • Distance between bogies: 10516mm.

Comparative Specifications

WDM–3DWDM-3. Photo by Naren DamodaranA higher-powered version of the basic WDM-2C (WDM-3A) class, these locos have a 3300hp powerpack, with available traction power of 2925hp. The engine is an enhanced version of the 16-cylinder Alco 251C model. Max. speed 160km/h. Fabricated (welded) Alco High-Adhesion Co-Co bogies. Starting TE is 36036kgf (353kN). Dual braking systems.

Left hand drive, WDG-3A style High Adhesion bogies, air cylinder under footboard, WDP-4 style fuel tanks, engine doors like WDP-4, marker lights outside cabin doors, electronic horn. Improved bogies with stem type vertical and lateral dampers in place of 'eye' type for easier maintenance. High capacity buffers. Components and auxiliaries improved with the aim of making the duty schedule longer between maintenance visits to the shed. Fuel tank capacity 6000l, engine oil sump capacity 1210l.

The WDM-3D is the result of a concerted effort by DLW to incorporate some of the best features of the GM/EMD locomotives (WDP-4/WDG-4) into the proven Alco base technology with which DLW has enormous experience. The WDM-3D uses General Electric's 'Bright Star' microprocessor control system to monitor and control various engine parameters, to detect wheel slip, and to supply power in a phased manner to the traction motors under slipping conditions. (Some later units may have switched to a control unit from Medha.) An oil cooler is provided in this loco, a first for the Alco-based models produced in India. The cab in the first units of this class is a normal metal one, but later units are expected to feature a fibre-glass cab as seen in the WDP-4 (e.g., #20012). (This will result in thWDM-3. Photo by Naren Damodarane dynamic brake resistor grid being moved to behind the cab.) The control desk will also be changed to be similar to that of the WDP-4. [11/08] Only one locomotive (#11121) so far has had cab this modification. Rest of the fleet retain the classic Alco hood design but have had the dynamic brake resistor moved to the roof on the short hood (#11200 onwards?).

The first one was built in July, 2003, numbered #11101. Launch livery deep blue with cream stripes, but has possibly been repainted very soon after. Spotted with damaged sandboxes in December 2003 at Bangalore. Maker's plate read 'DM-3D-001, July 2003'. The first few units (five, [11/04]) were all homed at Krishnarajapuram but later transferred to Erode. Serial production started in late 2005 with locos being alloted to almost all major BG diesel sheds.

Nomenclature: The class name 'WDM-3D' would normally imply 3400hp, however this loco is rated at 3300hp, just like the WDM-3C. Originally when this was developed, it was named WDM-3C+, but apparently IR decided that this was too confusing, and re-classified it as 'WDM-3D' to avoid confusion with the WDM-3C class. In addition, the 3500hp WDM-3E class (see below) is referred to as 'WDM-3D without equalizer' in IR documents, so the class name 'WDM-3D' is somewhat ambiguous as it may refer to either the 3300hp or the 3500hp loco..

Brief Notes

  • Builders: DLW
  • Weight: 117t
  • Axle Load: 19.5t
  • Bogies: Alco High-Adhesion Co-Co fabricated bogies.
  • Length: 18626mm
  • Width: 2950mm
  • Height: 4077mm
  • Starting TE: 353kN (36036kgf)
  • Gear ratio: 18:65
  • Traction Alternator: BHEL TA 10102FV
  • Traction Motor: BHEL 5002AZ CGL 7362A
  • Compressor: 6CD4UC
  • RPM: 390rpm-400rpm idling, 1050rpm at 8th notch
  • Main brake reservoir pressure: 10.4kg/cm2

Comparative Specifications

WDM–4 (Class name carried over from old system.) There were 72 of these export model SD-24 GM-EMD locos, supplied in 1962. Rated at 2600hp (some earlier units were 2400hp) and 140km/h. Co-Co, 16-cylinder 2-stroke turbo-supercharged engines.WDM-4 They were considered a potential alternative to the WDM-2 design from Alco and were superior in many ways, but eventually the Alco loco won as GM did not agree to a technology transfer agreement.

They are 2-stroke engines fitted with Woodwards governors. All units of IR were equipped only for vacuum brakes. Top speed generally limited to 120km/h, although they were run at 130km/h regularly for the Howrah Rajdhani, and even run in some speed trials at 145km/h. Haulage capacity 2400t. The Co-Co bogies used for this loco were Flexicoil 'Mark 1' cast steel types.

All were eventually based at NR's diesel shed at Mughalsarai. The Doon Exp. was one of the first to get these locos (it was also one of the first major trains to switch from steam). Most prominently, the Howrah Rajdhani was hauled by a WDM-4 at one time, as were many other prestigious trains (AC Exp. (now Poorva), Himgiri, and Kashi-Vishwanath Exps.). Later they used to haul local area passenger trains on the Dehradun - Moradabad - Lucknow - Varanasi - Mughalsarai - Buxar - Patna - Howrah sections. The Bareilly-Mughalsarai Passenger was probably the last train to get these locos. These locos could haul around 9 passenger coaches; for the 18-coach Rajdhani and other trains they were invariably used with two locos coupled together.

All are now decommissioned [7/00]. About 20 are at Mughalsarai shed [7/01], and the rest at Alambagh stores depot destined for scrapping. One (#18001, second of class) is now [2/01] at the NRM. IR numbers 18000-39, 18080-111. Interestingly, the gap in serial numbers corresponds to the 40 units of this model delivered by GM to Pakistan at the same time. Four units (18004, 18022, 18098, and 18107) were purchased by IRCON in 2000, and sent to Bangladesh for construction work.

Comparative Specifications

WDP–4WDP-4These are GM EMD GT46PAC locos. Starting in June 2001, 10 of them (#20000 to #20009) were provided by GM, operating out of Hubli (but frequently seen at Guntakal, Gooty, Bangalore and Secunderabad). In April 2002 DLW started producing these locomotives with 20011, 20013 and 20014 being assembled from completely knocked down kits. 20012 was the first indigenously manufactured WDP-4 and features a modified fibre glass shell over the standard cab. DLW had plans only for these 5 in its first production batch, but started to produce them in large numbers starting in late 2003.

These are 4000hp locos with the 16-cylinder EMD 16-710 (16-V-710G3B-EC) turbocharged engines (AC-AC transmission) with unit fuel injection. The fabricated underframe has a rigid design. The bogies are GM's light-weight cast HTSC bogies similar to those of WDG-4 locos but meant for passenger use. (See the WDG-4 notes for some more information.) The bogies are said to have a 'million mile' overhaul interval because of a reduction in the number of wearing surfaces. The suspension is a two-stage suspension. They have an interesting Bo1-1Bo wheel arrangement. At 119t they are 7t lighter than the WDG-4 because they have 2 fewer traction motors. Max. speed 160km/h, although in trials it is said to have been run at speeds up to 180km/h. However, in most cases today [2/05] the loco is restricted to 110km/h or so since it used for hauling heavier 24-coach passenger trains. Factor of adhesion is claimed to be around 32% (all-weather). The EM2000 onboard microprocessor system provides a flexible and expandable control system with complete self-diagnostic and unit history features. The cab body is made of fibreglass. It is expected that these will need to return to their home sheds only once in about 90 days for regular maintenance. However, the links at Hubli [1/05] are such that these end up being 'home' every 15 days in any case. Indigenization has proceeded well with many components being made in India now: motors by Crompton, alternators by Kirloskar, etc.

Unusually for IR locos, the DLW-built WDP-4's have cab air-conditioning factory-installed. However, the Hubli shed apparently discourages the use of the air-conditioning equipment for fear it affects fuel consumption adversely [10/04].

Starting in April 2005, these locos were allocated in large numbers to Krishnarajpuram shed of the SWR with Siliguri in the NFR receiving a few locos in late 2006. [12/08] More sheds are expected to home these locos, but currently, along with Hubli, these are the only sheds that handle this class. The current holding of all sheds combined is 75+.

#20040 homed at KJM shed is the first IGBT based WDP-4. The traction conversion system was supplied by Siemens.

  • Builders: GM EMD, DLW
  • Engine: GM-EMD 16-710, 4000hp
  • Transmission: Electric (AC - AC), GM components?
  • Weight: 118t
  • Tractive Effort: 27.0t (264.8kN). Some sources say 27.5t (269.8kN)
  • Brake horsepower: 3939hp
  • Engine rpm: 950
  • Weight: 118t
  • Fuel tank capacity: 6000l

A 24-coach (1430t) passenger rake can be accelerated to 110km/h in 1020 seconds (over 25.7km) by a WDP-4.

Comparative Specifications

WDP–4B These locos are modified versions of the WDG-4 class locos, used for passenger operations. They have a reduced axle load of 20.2t (compared to the WDG-4's 21t axle load), achieved mainly by trimming the weight of the underframe. The gear ratio is 17:77, horsepower rating of 4500hp (brake horsepower 4150hp), and the maximum tractive effort is 384.4kN. It has an operational design speed of 130km/h and a maximum speed of 150km/h. The cab is slightly wider to provide better visibility when running long hood forward. All other features are essentially the same as with the WDG-4. Please see the WDG-4 class information for more details on this loco. Other points to note are below.

Initially two prototypes of the WDP-4B class were built using components for the WDP-4 class loco (#20047, #20075 - in the number series for the WDP-4 class). Serial production of these locos began in March 2010.

Note that although the class designation makes it seem like a minor variant of the WDP-4 class, it has significant differences from it, being much closer to the WDG-4 class. In particular, the WDP-4 has 4 PAC traction motors (Bo-Bo) whereas the WDP-4B has 6 traction motors (Co-Co). In addition, the traction motors have individual inverters, so that in the case of one inverter failing, 5 traction motors are still available, allowing the loco to reach its destination under reduced power. Traction control uses IGBTs instead of GTOs. The control software has also been changed so as to squeeze out power at the top end of each traction motor under most conditions, unlike with the WDP-4 where the software was more constraining in terms of when it would allow maximum power to be drawn. The WDP-4B also has a provision for an inverter-driven head-end power unit, allowing running trains without a generating car (EOG) for hotel power.

Comparative Specifications

WDP–4C Non-existent?? It is unclear if this class actually exists. No confirmed sightings have been reported, nor any official documents referring to this class been seen. The class name may have been used internally by DLW or by one of the diesel sheds for experimental variants of the WDP-4 model.

WDG-3A / WDG–2WDG-3(Old class name was WDG-2, new class name is WDG-3A.) This 3100hp model was developed in response to problem areas noted with the WDM-2, such as ride quality, lateral oscillations, and poor traction with heavy loads. Power-pack is the same as that of the WDP-2.

First loco delivered on July 18, 1995. A WDG-3A / WDG-2 can haul about 3000 tonnes on ordinary gradients. Shares bogie design with WCAG-1, WCAM-3, WAG-7 (high-adhesion trucks). They are the most common goods locos seen on KR. The gear ratio is 74:18. Most of these are air-braked, but some (e.g., at Pune) are being retrofitted with vacuum brakes to make them dual-braked to handle the vacuum-braked freight stock (TP, TK petroleum tankers between Loni petrol depot and Miraj; some BCX rakes, etc.).

WDG-3Balancing speed of 69km/h with a 58 BOXN wagon load. Max. speed 100km/h. The WDG-2A variants are dual-braked. Some older WDG-3A units were made with left-hand-side driving position in the cab. [7/02] Newer units of the class are being fitted with microprocessor governors. The first of these variants, Garuda (#14951) is at Gooty. One WDG-3A, #14944 at Erode, has an air-conditioned cabin.

  • Builders: DLW
  • Engine: Alco 251C-16 upgraded by DLW, 3100hp. 1050rpm max / 400rpm idle. Fuel injection, cooling, fan, bore/stroke as with WDM-2C. Compression ratio 12.5:1. NAP NA2951R or ABB VTC304-15 turbo-supercharger.
  • Transmission: Electric, with BHEL TA 10102 CW alternator (1050rpm, 1130V, 4400A).
  • Axle Load: 20.5t; total weight 123t.
  • Bogies: Alco High-Adhesion Co-Co fabricated bogies
  • Starting TE:37.9t at 30.8% adhesion.
  • Length over buffer beams: 17850mm
  • Distance between bogies: 11500mm

Comparative Specifications

WDG–4WDG-4 New dedicated goods diesel locos. These are GM's GT46MAC models. First units were imported in 1999 (13 fully built, 8 in kit form). Now [4/02] DLW has begun local production; 3 have been built and a further 25 or so were built in 2002. As of [1/06] 60+ units have been built.

The loco shed at Hubli has been modified to handle these; initially all will be based at Hubli and will be used to haul mineral ore freight from Bellary or Hospet to Vasco da Gama.

The locos are rated at 4000hp and use 3-phase AC traction motors. They can start a load of 58 BOXN wagons on a 1 in 150 grade and have a balancing speed of 85km/h for such a load on level track. Max. speed is 100km/h. They can be MU'd with up to 4 units operating in tandem. Gear ratio 85:16. Axle load 21 tonnes. They have an evaporation-bath-cooled converter system, and the Siemens SIBAS 16 traction control system. The locos also have slip-control mechanisms.

They are expected to have lower maintenance costs, as they need to return to the home shed only once in 90 days instead of every 7-10 days as with the earlier diesels. Fuel costs are also about 20% lower than with the WDM-2. [1/05] Earlier plans to home more of these at Golden Rock seem to have been dropped; instead more are expected to go to the northeast (Siliguri? New Alipurduar?).

The first units from GM were #12001-12013 manufactured between 7/97 and 9/98; followed by a second order (#12014-12021) manufactured around 12/98. The first unit, #12001, has been seen often [1/05] in a green-black livery with no IR markings and instead '9001 / General Motors' painted on it.

Recent WDG-4 units have added GTO control of the traction motors.

  • Builders: GM, DLW
  • Engine: GM-EMD 16-710 G3B, 4000hp, with EMD 'G' turbocharger. WW PGR governor. Unit fuel injection, centrifugal pump as with WDP-2, cooling and fan as in WDP-2.
  • Transmission: Electric with TA-17-CA6A alternator, 900rpm, 2200V AC / 3000V DC, 1600A AC, 2100A DC.
  • Wheelsets: Co-Co bogies
  • Starting TE:55t at 41% adhesion.
  • Length over buffer beams: 19964mm
  • Distance between bogies: 13888mm (? or 13666mm?)
  • Weight: 128t
  • Fuel tank capacity: 6000l

Comparative Specifications

A modified version of this loco with reduced weight is designated WDP-4B and is used for hauling passenger trains.

WDS–4, WDS–4A, WDS–4BCLW produced some of these diesel-hydraulic locos beginning in 1967-1968, but bulk production began only in 1969. (Some of the later units were probably built at the Diesel Loco Works, Varanasi.) WDS-4BWheel arrangement: 'C'. 6-cylinder 4-stroke turbo-supercharged engines. WDS-4 models are rated at 600hp, WDS-4A at 660hp, and WDS-4B at 700hp. (The same power-pack is used on all the models, upgraded for each.)

Many of these were used by public-sector units and some private companies for industrial uses. (These are the only IR locos in use today with hydraulic transmission.) WDS-4B numbers are shared in a range with WDS-4D locos. The first WDS-4A, #19057, named 'Indraprastha', was homed at Shakurbasti for a long time (still is [10/05]) but is due to be decommissioned and sent to the NRM shortly. Some WDS-4A locos (e.g., #19063) have over the course of time 'lost' their sub-class marking and are marked simply as WDS-4 -- it's not clear whether this is just a sloppy job by the painters or indicates some real variation in the locos.

Brief Notes

  • Builders: CLW
  • Engine: Mak/CLW 6M 282 A(K), slight variations and power differences for WDS-4A, WDS-4B, etc.
  • Transmission: Mak-Suri 2-speed hydromechanical transmission (WDS-4), Voith hydraulic transmission (WDS-4A), Suri hydromechanical transmission (WDS-4B)

Comparative Specifications

More diesels (MG and NG) on the next page.

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