Indian Place Names

  • -abad From Farsi, 'populated' or 'settled'. E.g., Ahmedabad.
  • -adri Sanskrit (?) 'hill'. E.g., Narayanadri, Anjanadri.
  • -aranya Sanskrit 'forest'. E.g., Namisharanya.
  • -bagh Farsi 'garden'. E.g., Charbagh.
  • -bakkam, -vakkam Tamil, 'area' or 'neighbourhood'?? E.g., Nungambakkam, Villivakkam.
  • -bandar, -bandra Western India, 'port'. E.g., Porbandar.
  • -bari ?? Bengali 'house', Assamese 'orchard'. E.g., Alubari.
  • -basti Hindi 'settlement'. E.g., Dayabasti, Shakurbasti
  • bazar Mostly in UP/Bihar. 'Market'. E.g., Siswa Bazar.
  • cutchery, kacheri, kutchuhery (other variant spellings exist). 'Court'. E.g., Gonda Kutchuhery.
  • -chawni Hindi 'cantonment'.
  • -cheruvu Telugu 'lake'.
  • -dham ?? 'Temple'? E.g., Baidyanathdham, Gandhidham.
  • -dih ?? E.g., Manduadih, Pathardih.
  • -duar, -dooar ?? Perhaps from Sanskrit dwar, 'door', 'entrance'. E.g., Alipurduar.
  • -durg 'Fort'. E.g., Nandidurg, Jaladurg.
  • -eshwar, -eshwaram From Sanskrit ishwar, 'god', 'lord'. E.g., Ankleshwar, Rameshwaram.
  • -gachhi (variant spellings exist). From Bengali for 'tree'? E.g., Bamangachhi.
  • -ganj Northern & eastern India. 'Trading post', 'warehouse'? Perhaps from Indo-Iranian word meaning 'treasure'. E.g., Collectorganj, Daryaganj.
  • -gaon Hindi 'village'. E.g., Chalisgaon.
  • -garh Hindi 'Fort'. E.g., Chittorgarh.
  • -ghat Access point for a river with steps leading down, or a jetty. E.g., Digha Ghat.
  • -giri Sanskrit 'mountain'. E.g., Chandragiri.
  • -gola Bengali 'warehouse'. E.g., Lalgola, Bhagwangola.
  • -gram Sanskrit 'village'. E.g., Lakhmani Gram, Sewagram.
  • -gudi Kannada 'temple'. E.g., Basavanagudi.
  • -gunta Telugu 'lake'. E.g., Renigunta.
  • -guri, -gara Loosely, 'place' (Bengali?). E.g. Jalpaiguri, Mainaguri, Siliguri, Matigara.
  • -gutta Telugu 'hill', also -gudda in Kannada. E.g., Panjagutta.
  • -hat, -hati, -hatta, -het 'Market' or 'fair'. E.g., Guwahati, Jorhat, Sylhet.
  • kasba Arabic qasbah, a market town. Often used as a prefix.
  • kalan 'Big', the bigger of two towns/villages with the same name. E.g., Kosi Kalan, Jharonda Kalan.
  • khurd 'Small', the smaller of two towns/villages with the same name. E.g. Ugar Khurd, Renala Khurd.
  • -kere Kannada 'lake'. E.g., Arsikere.
  • -konda Telugu 'hill'. E.g., Golconda, Penukonda.
  • -kot 'Fort' or 'fortified town'. E.g., Rajkot, Pathankot. Perhaps a variant of this is -kotla ('fortification').
  • -kovil Tamil 'temple'. Variant spelling is -coil. E.g. Nagercoil.
  • -madugu Telugu 'lake'. E.g. Jammalamadugu.
  • -malai Southern India, 'hill'. E.g., Sabrimalai, Kollamalai, Annamalai.
  • mandi Hindi 'Market'. Often a prefix. E.g., Mandi Adampur, Mandi Gobindgarh, Sabzimandi.
  • -mangalam Tamil, perhaps a camp for soldiers. E.g., Needamangalam.
  • -mer Perhaps 'mountain' from Sanskrit 'meru'. E.g., Ajmer, Barmer, Jaisalmer.
  • -nagar Sanskrit 'town'. E.g., Srinagar.
  • -nath Sanskrit 'lord', usually referring to deities/shrines. E.g., Ambernath, Parasnath.
  • -ner ?? E.g. Bikaner, Gajner.
  • -pahar Hindi 'hill'. E.g., Belpahar, Tinpahar.
  • -palli Tamil/Telugu. Also -halli, -alli Kannada. 'Village'. E.g., Thiruchirapalli, Jalahalli.
  • -palya, -palyam Kannada? E.g. Kalasipalyam.
  • -para Bengali 'locality'. E.g. Rangapara, Kendrapara.
  • -pat Haryana/Punjab. Probably 'rock' or 'plateau' from Sanskrit prastar. E.g., Panipat, Sonepat.
  • -patnam Southern India, 'port'. Several variant spellings. E.g., Masulipattanam.
  • -pet, -pettai Southern & western India. 'Marketplace'. E.g., Hospet, Jolarpettai.
  • -prastha Sanskrit 'established'. E.g., Indraprastha.
  • -prolu Telugu 'village'. E.g. Bhattiprolu, Gollaprolu.
  • -pur, -puri, -pura, -puram, -pore From Sanskrit, a town (walled city -- may also mean a city with a citadel or palace). E.g., Kanpur, Thiruvananthapuram. Also Singapore!
  • qila Arabic 'fort'.
  • -sandra Kannada? E.g. Chennasandra.
  • -sar Sanskrit, 'lake' (from sarovar). Mostly in northwestern India. E.g., Amritsar, Soodsar.
  • -serai, -sarai In medieval times, an inn or resting place for travellers. E.g., Mughalsarai.
  • -shahar Farsi 'town'. E.g., Bulandshahar.
  • -sthan Sanskrit 'place'. E.g., Rajasthan.
  • -tal, -talao, -talaiya Hindi, 'natural lake'. E.g., Nainital.
  • -tanr, -tand 'On the river bank' (Bengali?). E.g., Jamuniatanr, Tulsiatanr.
  • -ur, -oor, -uru, -ore Tamil/Kannada/etc. 'village'/'town'. E.g., Kadambur, Bangalore, Coonoor.
  • vihar Sanskrit 'garden', 'park'. E.g., Anand Vihar, Mayur Vihar.
  • -wada, -wara 'House'. E.g., Bhilwada, Teliwara.
  • -wala ??
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